- / YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS OKRUGAn administrative district of the Russian Federation. Yamaliya is one of three ethnic homelands of the Nenets people, the other two being Nenetsiya and Taymyriya (both of which share a border with Yamaliya). Yamaliya also neighbors the Komi Republic, Krasnoyarsk Krai, and Khantiya-Mansiya. The region’s northern coast is washed by the Kara Sea, and hems in the Gulf of Ob, which in turn is fed by the Ob River. An autonomous okrug (AOk), Yamaliya is a federal subject of the Russian Federation but is simultaneously subjugated to Tyumen Oblast.Established by Cossacks in 1595, the administrative center is Salekhard (pop. 96,000), one of the world’s largest towns located above the Arctic Circle; it was previously known as Obdorsk. Salekhard is connected to Russia proper by a railway constructed in the 1950s with gulag labor.The region has an area of 750,300 square kilometers and a population of 500,000. The titular nation, Nenets, makes up only 5 percent of the population, while ethnic Russians account for 59 percent. Ukrainians, Tatars, and indigenous peoples of the Far North make up the remainder.Yamaliya is a major center of natural gas extraction, and home to Russia’s largest independent natural gas company, Novatek. Gazprom also has a large presence in the area and signed a major cooperation agreement with the local government to promote environmental protection, investment, relocation of retirees to warmer climes, and new jobs. More than 90 percent of Russia’s natural gas is produced in the region. Transneft’s Yamal-Europe is a 4,200-kilometer pipeline connecting the region to Germany; other routes connect to the southern Urals and other parts of Russia.Oil is also found in abundance in the region, which has attracted the interest of Rosneft, Lukoil, and other major companies. Gold, timber, lead, iron ore, copper, and other natural resources also contribute to the local economy, as do construction, maritime and riverine shipping, and manufacturing. Fur farming, fishing, and animal husbandry remain traditional occupations among the indigenous population, often supplemented by sales of mammoth ivory, which is abundant in the region.The longtime governor of the region is Yury Neyolov. His tenure has been marked by attempts to preserve Nenets culture and protect the environment, while attracting investment to the region and establishing relations with foreign governments, including Canada and Iceland. He has a close relationship with former Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. Yamal Potomkam (Yamal for Our Descendants) is an important Salekhard-based nongovernmental organization that supports environmentalism and cultural rights for the native population.
Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Robert A. Saunders and Vlad Strukov. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
yāmalīya — यामलीय … Indonesian dictionary
Khantiya-Mansiya — / KHANTY MANSI AUTONOMOUS OKRUG YUGRA An administrative district of the Russian Federation. As an autonomous okrug (AOk), Khantiya Mansiya is both a federal subject of the Russian Federation and a subject of the Tyumen Oblast, which lies on … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Tyumen Oblast — An administrative region of the Russian Federation. Tyumen stretches nearly 2,000 kilometers, from the Kara Sea in the north to the Kazakh steppe in the south. Existing as autonomous okrugs (AOks) within Tyumen, the federal subjects of… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Introduction — All countries are unique, but Russia particularly contemporary Russia is undoubtedly sui generis. Underscoring this point, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill once described the country as “a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.” … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Arkhangelsk Oblast — / Archangel An administrative region of the Russian Federation. Part of the Northwestern Federal District and the Northern Economic Region, Archangel shares a border with Kareliya, Vologda, Kirov, Komi, and Yamaliya; it administers… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Autonomous Okrug — (AOk) Political subdivision of the Russian Federation. Known as national okrugs until 1977, the Autonomous Okrugs are federal subjects of the Russian Federation that are, in most cases, simultaneously subordinated to another federal subject.… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Far North — The Russian Far North (Dal’ nii Sever) or Extreme North (Krainii Sever) is the area of Russia that lies in the northern periphery of the Eurasian landmass. Located mostly above the Arctic Circle, the Far North includes the federal subjects of… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Federal subjects — Russia is a federation that consists of 83 subjects, down from 89 subjects during the 1990s. These entities possess equal federal rights within the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament), having two seats each. However,… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
GAZPROM — With more than 445,000 employees and more than $100 billion in revenues, OAO Gazprom is the world’s largest extractor of natural gas. It is also Russia’s largest company and accounts for one quarter of the country’s tax revenues. Former Prime… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Khanty — Ethnic group. Formerly known as the Ostyaks, the Khanty are an Ugrian people of western Siberia. They are closely related to the Mansi people, and together they represent the titular minorities of Khantiya Mansiya, which collectively represent … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation